- 12 sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela;
- 2 dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands;
- 1 internal territory: French Guiana
- Aconcagua: the highest mountain in the Americas 6,961m
- highest capitals: La Paz (3,650 m), Quito (2,850 m), Bogota (2,640 m)
- South America has the world's driest desert, tallest waterfall, longest mountain range (Andes, 7,242 km), largest rain forest, and biggest river by volume of flow.
- tepui: tabletop mountains, means "house of the gods". One of the oldest rock formations in the world. More than one hundred in Venezuela.
- Mapuche: lives in the southern end of South America, now in Chile and Argentina.
- About 1/3 of South America's land is used for farming or ranching.
- Most of the world's emeralds come from Colombia.
- c. 10,500 B.C.: people live in Monte Verde, Chile.
- 1492: Christopher Columbus "discovered" the New World of the Americas.
- 1530s: The Spanish explorers invade South America.
- 1500s - 1800s: Europeans take Aficans to South America to work as slaves.
- 1888: Slavery ends in Brazil,.
- 1438–1533, capital: Cusco
- 1533: Spanish conquest led by Francisco Pizarro
- Peru, western Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, a large portion of what is today Chile, and the southwesternmost tip of Colombia
- sun worship
- Quechua: the Inca language. Now the most widely spoden indigenous language in the Amricas.
- Inka = ruler in Quechua
- Sapa Inca: "the only Inca", the ruler of the Kingdom of Cuzco and later, the Emperor of the Inca Empire (Tawantinsuyu) and the Neo-Inca State.
- Inca were able to construct "one of the greatest imperial states in human history" without the use of the wheel, draft animals, knowledge of iron or steel, or even a system of writing
- pachamama=mama earch
- incan: master of fibers
- Machu Picchu: the ancient Inca city in the Peruvian Andes; the residents abandoned the city in the 1530s. In 1911, it was rediscovered by an American explorer.
- Pantanal: world's largest tropical wetland area (Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay)
- Andes Mountains, the longest mountain range in the world: 7,000 km long, 200 to 700 km wide, avg height ~4000m. 7 countries: Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina.
- Andean Condor
- The Gran Chaco: hot and dry grassy lowlands. It covers parts of Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia.
- Quebracho: a tree grows there, provides strong timber and tannin for dyeing leather.
- Pampas: south of the Gran Chaco. Flat, fertile plains, in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Brazil. Gauchos: cowboys.
- The Atacama Desert: the driest desert, the sky is extremely clear, one of the best places for studying stars. Rich in copper and sodium nitrate (used for fertilizer and gunpowders).
- Iguaçu Falls: on the boarder of Brazil and Argentina. 275 falls.
- Patagonia: the southern end of South America (Argentina, Chile). mostly in Argentina, includes the Andes in the west and dry plateaus and plains to the east.
- The Galápagos Islands: lie abuot 600 miles west of Ecuador; 18 volcanic islands. Wildlife. The penguins there live farther north than any other kind. The islands' marine iguana is the only lizard that feeds in the ocean.
- The Amazon rain forest: the world's largest tropical rain forest; it covers about 2 million square miles, or 5.2 million sq km. It carries more water than any other river. Only the Nile is longer. It produces 20 percent of Earth's oxygen. Animals: poison-dart frog, toucan, tapir.
- Lake Titicaca: located on the border of Peru and Bolivia, 3,812 meters above sea level. the highest navigable lake in the world. Home to Uro-Aymara Indians; floating islands made from reeds that grow on the shore.
- The Guianas
- Spanish Guiana: Guayana Region, Venezuela
- British Guiana: Guyana
- Dutch Guiana: Suriname
- French Guiana: French Guiana, an oversea dept of France
- Portuguese Guiana: State of Amapa, Brazil
- LATAM: Chile, Brasil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay
- Avianca: Columbia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Guatemala
- Aerolíneas Argentinas: Argentina
- Gol: Brazil (all B737)
- Azul: Brazil. (has widebody A339)
- Viva: Viva Colombia, Viva Peru (all A320)
- SKY: Chile, Peru (all A320)
- JetSMART: Chile, Argentina (all A320) By Indigo Partners (also created Frontier, Volaris, Wizz)
Airlines with widebodies:
|Airlines||Aircraft||All Lieflat||All direct aisle access|
- Perito Moreno Glacier
UIO-GYE-GPS (Baltra Island)
Bus from GPS airport to Puerto Ayora
Quito metro 2022
- Otavalo Market: vast andean handicrafts market.
Maracaibo Basin contains large reserves of crude oil. The basin also holds almost a quarter of Venezuela's population.
- Portugal ruled Brazil until 1822.
- CPTM: commuter rail, 7 lines
- Metro: 6 lines
- South America's biggest city; has the largest Japanese population outside of Japan.
- Salar de Uyuni: salt flats.
- Colonia del Sacramento
Food and Drink
- Chicha: corn beer
- Simón Bolívar (1783-1830): led independence from the Spanish Empire (Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Panama)
- Pachacuti: "reformer of the world" 9th Sapa Inca 1438–1471/1472, transformed Kingdom of Cusco to the Inca Empire, built Machu Picchu