History - Middle East
Sumer 苏美尔: 美索不达米亚南部
Akkadian Empire 阿卡德帝国 (2334-2192 BC)
人类历史上第一个帝国.于前 3000 年前结束游牧生活，定居于苏美尔
- Baghdad - Babylon
- Mosul - Nineveh Ruins - Assyria
Old Babylonian Empire a.k.a. First Babylonian Empire (c. 1894 BC – c. 1595 BC)
Hammurabi (c. 1810 – c. 1750 BC) was the sixth king of the First Babylonian dynasty
reigning from c. 1792 BC to c. 1750 BC
Code of Hammurabi
Unlike earlier Sumerian law codes, such as the Code of Ur-Nammu, which had focused on compensating the victim of the crime, the Law of Hammurabi was one of the first law codes to place greater emphasis on the physical punishment of the perpetrator. "eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth"
Babylon Ishtar Gate now in Pergamon Museum in Berlin
Neo-Assyrian Empire (911 BC–609 BC)
Neo-Babylonian Empire a.k.a. Second Babylonian Empire (626 BC–539 BC)
Nebuchadnezzar II: the second and greatest king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire r.605 BC to his own death in 562 BC. famous for his construction projects in his capital, Babylon, including Hanging Gardens
Ashurbanipal: the last great king of Assyria, Neo-Assyrian Empire
公元前 626 年，巴比伦尼亚宣告独立 建立新巴比伦王国，并与伊朗高原西北、同受亚述统治的米底人结成同盟，于公元前 612 年攻陷亚述首都尼尼微，亚述帝国覆亡，遗产被新巴比伦王国及米底瓜分。
Achaemenid (550-330 BC)
Cyrus the Great the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian empire. Darius the Great the third Iranian King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, reigning from 522 BCE until his death in 486 BCE Xerxes the Great, was the fourth King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire, ruling from 486 to 465 BC. He was the son and successor of Darius the Great, grandson of Cyrus
Ahura Mazda: the creator deity and highest deity of Zoroastrianism (祆教/拜火教) Ahura is "lord," and that of Mazda is "wisdom."
Cambyses II: conquer Egypt
First invasion of Greece (492–490 BC) Darius
- The Battle of Marathon: a watershed in the Greco-Persian wars, showing the Greeks that the Persians could be beaten. Second invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) Xerxes
- 温泉关战役 August 480 BC: Battles of Thermopylae (movie 300) Persian won
- Battle of Salamis: Greek won
亚历山大大帝打败大流士三世，Achaemenid Empire 灭亡
Persepolis: built by Xerxes, burnt by Alexander, because "Persian King Xerxes had burnt the Greek City of Athens around 150 years ago."
Not the same Darius:
- Darius I: 522–486 BC, Darius the Great, the third King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire.
- Darius III: 336–330 BC, the end of Achaemenid Empire, conquered by Alexander.
Seleucid Empire (312–63 BC)
Parthian Empire (247 BC–224 AD)
同时期：罗马帝国，中国汉朝，贵霜帝国（30 年－375 年）
Sasanian Empire (224–651)
Islam: created in 7th century
阿拉伯帝国（632 年－1258 年）
穆罕默德 (c. 570-632) in 610 CE (中国的唐朝), the Islamic prophet Muhammad began receiving what Muslims consider to be divine revelations, calling for submission to the one God
四位继承人（即哈里发 caliphs）:巴克尔、欧玛尔、奥斯曼与阿里. Hasan or Hassan, was the older son of Ali and Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, as well as the fifth of Rashidun, or "Rightly Guided Caliphs"
three major caliphates succeeded each other （after Muhammad's death in 632):
- the Rashidun Caliphate (632–661), Rashidun = "Rightly Guided" caliphs 正统哈里发时期
- the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750),白衣大食
- Abbasid Caliphate (750–1517) 黑衣大食
In the fourth major caliphate, the Ottoman Caliphate, the rulers of the Ottoman Empire claimed caliphal authority from 1517.