Learn to Fly


Pitot-Static Instruments

  • pitot tube clogged: altimeter inoperative.
  • static vents clogged: airspeed, altimeter, vertical speed inoperative.


  • white arc: the flap operating range.
  • green arc: the normal operating range.
    • lower: V_S1, stall speed.s
  • yellow arc: the caution range; should only be flown in smooth air.
    • lower: V_NO, max structural cruising speed.
    • upper (red line): V_NE, never exceed speed

Other speed:

  • V_A: maneuvering speed.
  • V_Y: the best rate-of-climb speed (the most altitude in a given period of time)
  • V_X: the best angle-of-climb speed (the most altitude in a given distance)