What's special about 8069?

Runway length is shown to the nearest 100’, using 70 as the rounding point; a runway 8070’ in length is charted as 81, while a runway 8069’ in length is charted as 80.

What's "Heavy"?

Heavy: 300,000 pounds or more maximum certified takeoff weight.

Super: Airbus A380-800 (A388) and the ANTONOV An-225 (A225).

what part of the aircraft generates lift?

The whole aircraft. any objects moving through fluid generates lift .

Which tire should land first

the upwind main gear

Airplane direction during pre-takeoff check?

engines are air-cooled, pre-takeoff check turn the airplane in the direction of the wind

why have 2 ignition systems

for increased power

why need a pitot tube drain hole

let moisture out

How to roughly estimate fuel consumption

HP / 20, e.g. Citabria, 118 HP, ~6 GPH; if carbureted (instead of fuel injected), add ~0.5 GPH.

What is "Flight Level"?

Level 50 = 5000 feet

The transition between altitudes and flight levels differs by country and is generally just above the highest obstacle in that country.

  • US: the transition altitude/level is 18,000' / FL180.
  • Some countries transition as low as 5000' / FL050 and the transition altitude/level may vary from airport to airport.

What is dead-reckoning navigation?

Dead Reckoning (DR) is a method of navigation relying on estimating one's current track, groundspeed and position based on earlier known positions.

What is the intake manifold?

The intake manifold is the part of an engine that supplies fresh air to the cylinders: it is a small tube that distributes the fuel/air mixture into the engine’s cylinders during the intake stroke.

Feathering the blades

Feathering the blades of a propeller means to increase their angle of pitch by turning the blades to be parallel to the airflow. This minimizes drag from a stopped propeller following an engine failure in flight.

What is adverse yaw?

Adverse yaw is the natural and undesirable tendency for an aircraft to yaw in the opposite direction of a roll.

What is yaw damper?

A yaw damper is a system used to reduce (or damp) the undesirable tendencies of an aircraft to oscillate in a repetitive rolling and yawing motion, a phenomenon known as the Dutch roll.

What is Differential braking?

Differential braking is when you press one brake pedal harder than the other. It is used as an additional form of directional control when: You have no other forms of steering (either because the steering has failed or there is no nose-wheel steering).


flight management system


The “parts” refer to the parts of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR). The FARs are found under Title 14 (Aeronautics and Space) and Title 49 (Transportation) within the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), which is US Federal Law.

It is important to note that Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is titled “Federal Acquisitions Regulations” (also FAR). The two identical acronyms have created confusion, leading the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to refer to regulations as “14 CFR part XY.”

The “parts” referred to are parts of the FAR. The FAA refers to the parts of the FAR as “14 CFR part XY,” not “FAR part XY,” as it is colloquially used.

Code of Federal Regulation (CFR)

Title 14 of the CFR (14 CFR): Aeronautics and Space

Chapter 1 of Title 14: FAA, Department of Transportation

Subchapter D Airmen, Part 61: "Certification: Pilot, Flight Instructors and Ground Instructors" (14 CFR part 61) for non-certificated flying schools and independent flight instructors.

Subchapter H Schools and Other Certificated Agencies, Part 141 "Pilot Schools" (14 CFR part 141) for FAA certified schools

The FAR is the book of Federal Aviation Regulations, and the AIM is basically a textbook with further information consisting of several topics in individual chapters.

FBO: Fixed-base operator

  • operate at the airport.
  • provide aeronautical services: fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, flight instruction, etc.

Flight Instruments

  • Pitot tube measures both static pressure (ambient pressure / barometric pressure) and dynamic pressure
  • Airspeed Indicator (ASI) uses both static and dynamic pressure
  • Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) and Altimeter use only static pressure
  • 1 inch of pressure is equal to approximately 1,000 feet of altitude. E.g. if altimeter is not adjusted from 29.94 to 29.69, 29.94-29.69=0.25, 0.25 × 1,000 feet = 250 feet. the aircraft would be approximately 250 feet below the proper traffic pattern altitude. When the actual pressure is lower than what is set in the altimeter window, the actual altitude of the aircraft is lower than what is indicated on the altimeter

Airport Frequencies

An airport with a tower usually have tower and ground freq, some large airports also have ramp freq to handle taxiway to gate communication.

The individual airline-tenants control their own ramps, otherwise the airport ATC is responsible for ramp traffic.

ATIS / D-ATIS: weather and other info.

CTAF: when there's no tower; often the same as the tower freq.

UNICOM (universal communications): air-ground, operated by a non-air traffic control private agency to provide advisory service.


Wx is the abbreviation for weather in the US.


Two-way data-link system: by which controllers can transmit non urgent strategic messages to an aircraft as an alternative to voice communications.

Circuit Breakers

The numbers on your breaker are there to tell you much power they let through the circuit before it trips. Electricians measure that power in amps. So, a breaker labeled with a 15 will let 15 amps through but will shut the circuit off if it senses 16 amps.


Fuel-injected engines do not require a primer.

When cold, a carbureted aircraft engine may not generate sufficient heat to vaporize the fuel in its cylinders, resulting in an engine that won’t start. A manual fuel primer injects vaporized fuel directly into one or more of the engine’s cylinders to aid in starting.


ad=airworthiness directive (like car recalls?)


create a spark, does not need a source of energy


navigate by visual references on the ground


FANS: Future Air Navigation System. It provides direct data link communication between the pilot and the air traffic controller. and allows controllers to play a more passive monitoring role through the use of increased automation and satellite-based navigation.

Runway numbers

All runways are numbered based on the magnetic azimuth (compass bearing) in which a runway is oriented.

Load Factor

load factor during a constant altitude turn is determined by bank; not changed by airspeed or type of airplane


the Carburetor is a device responsible for the maintenance of the proper air to fuel ratio for combustion.

The Carburetor works on Bernoulli’s principle, in that the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, and the higher the dynamic pressure is.

when to use Carburetor

  • When icing conditions are present.
  • High relative humidity.
  • Prolonged descent, or when approaching to land at low RPM.
  • When significantly reducing power (for example a simulated forced landing)

What is AOE?

An airport of entry (AOE) is an airport that provides customs and immigration services for incoming flights.

What are the documents that must be carried aboard an airplane.


  • Airworthiness certificate: A current airworthiness certificate is required (by FAR 91.203) to be displayed in an airplane where it can be read by everyone aboard.
  • Registration certificate
  • Operating limitations
  • Weight and balance information.

What is ELT? Which frequency?

ELTs of various types were developed as a means of locating downed aircraft. These electronic, battery operated transmitters operate on one of three frequencies. These operating frequencies are 121.5 MHz, 243.0 MHz, and the newer 406 MHz. ELTs operating on 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz are analog devices.

What is useful load?

Useful load—the weight of the pilot, copilot, passengers, baggage, usable fuel, and drainable oil. It is the basic empty weight subtracted from the maximum allowable gross weight.

What is ARINC 429?

ARINC 429 is a data transfer standard for aircraft avionics.

How to calculate x-wind component?

wind angle x-wind
10 1/5
20 1/3
30 1/2
40 2/3
60 1

What is IMSAFE checklist?

  • Illness
  • Medication
  • Stress
  • Alcohol
  • Fatigue
  • Emotion

What is the definition of "night"?

"night": "the time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, as published in the Air Almanac, converted to local time."

"civil twilight": begin in the morning, and to end in the evening when the center of the Sun is geometrically 6 degrees below the horizon.

"Sunrise and sunset": the times when the upper edge of the disk of the Sun is on the horizon, considered unobstructed relative to the location of interest. Atmospheric conditions are assumed to be average, and the location is in a level region on the Earth’s surface.

"Night takeoff and landing experience": the pilot must have made at least 3 takeoffs and 3 landings to a full stop during the period beginning 1 hour after sunset and ending 1 hour before sunrise within the preceding 90 days.