Level 50 = 5000 feet



flight management system


The “parts” refer to the parts of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR). The FARs are found under Title 14 (Aeronautics and Space) and Title 49 (Transportation) within the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), which is US Federal Law.

It is important to note that Title 48 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is titled “Federal Acquisitions Regulations” (also FAR). The two identical acronyms have created confusion, leading the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to refer to regulations as “14 CFR part XY.”

The “parts” referred to are parts of the FAR. The FAA refers to the parts of the FAR as “14 CFR part XY,” not “FAR part XY,” as it is colloquially used.

Code of Federal Regulation (CFR)

Title 14 of the CFR (14 CFR): Aeronautics and Space

Chapter 1 of Title 14: FAA, Department of Transportation

Subchapter D Airmen, Part 61: "Certification: Pilot, Flight Instructors and Ground Instructors" (14 CFR part 61) for non-certificated flying schools and independent flight instructors.

Subchapter H Schools and Other Certificated Agencies, Part 141 "Pilot Schools" (14 CFR part 141) for FAA certified schools

The FAR is the book of Federal Aviation Regulations, and the AIM is basically a textbook with further information consisting of several topics in individual chapters.

FBO: Fixed-base operator

  • operate at the airport.
  • provide aeronautical services: fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance, flight instruction, etc.

Flight Instruments

  • Pitot tube measures both static pressure (ambient pressure / barometric pressure) and dynamic pressure
  • Airspeed Indicator (ASI) uses both static and dynamic pressure
  • Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) and Altimeter use only static pressure
  • 1 inch of pressure is equal to approximately 1,000 feet of altitude. E.g. if altimeter is not adjusted from 29.94 to 29.69, 29.94-29.69=0.25, 0.25 × 1,000 feet = 250 feet. the aircraft would be approximately 250 feet below the proper traffic pattern altitude. When the actual pressure is lower than what is set in the altimeter window, the actual altitude of the aircraft is lower than what is indicated on the altimeter

Airport Frequencies

An airport with a tower usually have tower and ground freq, some large airports also have ramp freq to handle taxiway to gate communication.

The individual airline-tenants control their own ramps, otherwise the airport ATC is responsible for ramp traffic.

ATIS / D-ATIS: weather and other info.

CTAF: when there's no tower; often the same as the tower freq.

UNICOM (universal communications): air-ground, operated by a non-air traffic control private agency to provide advisory service.


Wx is the abbreviation for weather in the US.


Two-way data-link system: by which controllers can transmit non urgent strategic messages to an aircraft as an alternative to voice communications.

Circuit Breakers

The numbers on your breaker are there to tell you much power they let through the circuit before it trips. Electricians measure that power in amps. So, a breaker labeled with a 15 will let 15 amps through but will shut the circuit off if it senses 16 amps.


Fuel-injected engines do not require a primer.

When cold, a carbureted aircraft engine may not generate sufficient heat to vaporize the fuel in its cylinders, resulting in an engine that won’t start. A manual fuel primer injects vaporized fuel directly into one or more of the engine’s cylinders to aid in starting.


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true air speed


create a spark, does not need a source of energy


navigate by visual references on the ground


FANS: Future Air Navigation System. It provides direct data link communication between the pilot and the air traffic controller. and allows controllers to play a more passive monitoring role through the use of increased automation and satellite-based navigation.