Animals - Mammals
Three main groups of living mammals:
- monotremes 单孔目 lay eggs, female monotremes nurse their young with milk (only 5 species) the only egg-laying mammals. short-nosed echidna, platypus
- Marsupial 有袋类
- Placentalia 胎盘动物
- Hair is unique to mammals. To maintain a constant body temperature
- bats are the only mammals that can fly
- red kangaroo: the largest kangaroo; can reach speeds of >30mph
- koala has 2 thumbs
- koala male very territorial; male on separate trees
- monkey vs ape: apes has no tails, monkeys have tails.
- hyrax related to elephant
- okapi related to giraffe
(Lemurs, monkeys, apes)
- Strepsirrhini 原猴
- Aye-aye (指猴): a long-fingered lemur, the world's largest nocturnal primate.
- Haplorhini 简鼻亚目
- catarrhines 狭鼻小目
- Old World monkeys
- macaque 猕猴 Japanese macaque = snow monkeys
- mandrill 山魈: the largest monkeys in the world, scarlet nose and blue ridges on the face
- Apes, including humans
- Old World monkeys
- platyrrhines (New World monkeys). Platyrrhini is derived from the Greek for "broad nosed", their noses are flatter than those of other simians
- marmoset: 狨猴
- tarsier: 眼镜猴. Philippine tarsier have the largest eyes relative to their body size.
- catarrhines 狭鼻小目
Lion: Social; the most intelligent big cats; 母狮子狩猎，公狮子保护。
Only 8 types of bears:
- American black bear: usually black, but in some regions the “black” bear can be brown, cinnamon-colored, or even blonde.
- Asian black bear: Asian black bear has a prominent white patch, which is often V-shaped, on its chest.
- Brown bear
- Polar bear
- Giant panda
- Sun bear: the world’s smallest bear.
- Sloth bear: Indian Subcontinent, insectivore (insect-eater), has the longest tail of all bears.
- Spectacled Bear: The Andes, South America, the only living bear species found in South America. named for the spectacle-like appearance of its facial markings
marine mammals (Cetaceans)
whales, dolphins, porpoises
- sperm whale 抹香鲸: the largest living toothed animal on the planet
- Orca=killer whale, are in fact huge dolphins
海豚：脊索动物门 > 脊椎动物亚门 > 哺乳纲 > 鲸目 > 齿鲸亚目 > 海豚科 > 海豚
- odd-toed: (single toe)horses, rihnos (3 toes)
- even-toed: pigs (4 toes), deer, antelopes
All antelope species have horns. Some on both male and female, some are male ony.
Antelope vs deer: Antelope horns are attached, unlike a deer's antlers that shed each year.
- Impala 黑斑羚 are antelopes (羚羊)
- Klipspringer: a small antelope found in eastern and southern Africa.
- Blesbok: prominent white blaze on the face.
- Sable and roan antelope
- Bontebok:white markings on the long, narrow face (known as a threat mask) are intended to intimidate predators
- Wildebeest 角马
- White-beared gnu: a.k.a. white-bearded wildebeest, native to Kenya and Tanzania.
- Addax: a.k.a. white antelope and the screwhorn antelope. Sahara Desert.
- Arabian Oryx: long, straight and slender horns. Light color to reflect the desert heat and sunlight.
- Dik-dik: small African antelope. Name may be an imitation of their alarm cry. Long and flexible snout. Only male dik-diks have the corrugated horns.
- Duiker: small- to medium-sized antelope, sub-Saharan Africa. Name from Afrikkans/Dutch word for diver or diving buck. It refers to the duikers' practice of diving into tangles of shrubbery.
- Bongo: a giant among forest antelopes. Native to rain forests of central and western Africa. Thin stripes.
- Eland: the largest type of antelope.
- Gerenuk: giraffe gazelle, is a long-necked antelope found in parts of East Africa.
- Lechwe: native to the floodplains of the Nile River Valley.
marmot vs prairie dogs vs ground squirrel vs
- squirrels, Marmotini
- marmots (Marmota), including the American groundhog
- the smaller and less bushy-tailed ground squirrels tend to be known as chipmunks
- aardvark 土豚
- shrews 鼩鼱
- sengi: 象鼩
- armadillos 犰狳
- Fennec fox 耳廓狐: the smallest fox. very large ears
- sea otter: the smallest marine mammal (river otter vs sea otter?)
- caracal 狞猫
- mongoose 猫鼬
- ibex 山羊
- Pudu: the world's smallest deer, South American
- Agouti: 刺豚鼠, native to Middle America, related to guinea pigs
- Binturong 熊狸
- Kopi luwak, also known as civet coffee, is a coffee that consists of partially digested coffee cherries, which have been eaten and defecated by the Asian palm civet （椰子貓）(Paradoxurus hermaphroditus).
- The only squirrels that hibernate are the ground squirrels
- Groundhogs hibernate from October through March
- Bears hibernate.